Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accountant Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accountant Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation Basis of Presentation and ConsolidationPrior to the year ended December 31, 2022, Babylon, including all wholly-owned subsidiaries and majority-owned or controlled entities (the “Group”), prepared its financial statements in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”), permitted in the United States as the Group qualified as a “foreign private issuer” under the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). At December 31, 2022, the Group no longer met the qualification to file its financial statements with the SEC as a foreign private issuer, and was considered to be a domestic filer. Accordingly, the Group now prepares its Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles of the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). As a result of this current period adoption
Basis of Consolidation .
The Company consolidates certain professional service corporations (“PCs”) that are owned, directly or indirectly, and operated by appropriately licensed physicians. The Company maintains control of these PCs through contractual arrangements, which can include service agreements, financing agreements, equity transfer restriction agreements, and employment agreements, or a combination thereof, which are primarily established during the formation of the PCs. At inception, the contractual framework established between the Group and the PCs provides the Group with the power to direct the relevant activities in the conduct of the PC’s non-clinical administrative and other non-clinical business activities. The physicians employed by the PC are exclusively in control of, and responsible for, all aspects of the practice of medicine for their patients. In determining whether a particular set of activities and assets is a business, the Group assesses whether the set of assets and activities acquired includes, at a minimum, an input and a substantive process and whether the acquired set has the ability to produce outputs.

For those consolidated subsidiaries where our ownership is less than 100%, the portion of the net income or loss allocable to the noncontrolling interests is reported as “Loss attributable to noncontrolling interests” in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss. The Company records a non-controlling interest for the portion attributable to its minority partners. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Business combinations accounted for as purchases have been included from their respective dates of acquisition.
Variable Interest Entities
Variable Interest Entities
The Company evaluates its ownership, contractual and other interests in entities to determine if it has any variable interest in a VIEs. These evaluations are complex, involve judgment, and the use of estimates and assumptions based on available
historical information, among other factors. The Company considers itself to control an entity if it is the majority owner of or has voting control over such entity. The Company also assesses control through means other than voting rights (“variable interest entities” or “VIEs”) and determines which business entity is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. The Company consolidates VIEs when it is determined that the Company is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. Management performs ongoing reassessments of whether changes in the facts and circumstances regarding the Company’s involvement with a VIE will cause the consolidation conclusion to change. Changes in consolidation status are applied prospectively
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience, current business and economic factors, and various other assumptions that the Company believes are necessary to form a basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities, the recorded amounts of revenue and expenses, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. The Company is subject to uncertainties such as the impact of future events, economic and political factors, and changes in the Company’s business environment; therefore, actual results could differ from these estimates. Accordingly, the accounting estimates used in the preparation of the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements will change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired, as additional information is obtained and as the Company’s operating environment evolves. The Company believes that estimates used in the preparation of these Consolidated Financial Statements are reasonable; however, actual results could differ materially from these estimates.
Changes in estimates are made when circumstances warrant. Such changes in estimates and refinements in estimation methodologies are reflected in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss, and if material, are also disclosed in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Estimates that involve a significant level of estimation uncertainty and reasonably likely to have a material impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company include our impairment analyses over the carrying value of long-lived assets (including goodwill and intangible assets), certain assumptions for revenue recognition, the accounting for premium deficiency reserves, incurred but not reported (“INBR”) amounts within claims expense, and the accounting for business combinations. Other policies that use estimates include the accounting for financial instruments and the accounting for stock-based compensation awards. For more details related to these estimates, refer to their sections within Note 2 of our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is primarily derived from the following sources: (1) capitation revenue from value-based care services, (2) software license fees for the provision of AI services, and (3) patient revenues from the provision of clinical services.

Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Group expects to receive in exchange for those services.

Contract assets are recognized when there is an excess of revenue earned over billings on contracts where the rights are conditional on something other than passage of time. Contract assets primarily relate to the Group’s rights to consideration for work performed but subject to customer acceptance at the reporting date.

Contract liabilities are recognized when there are billings in excess of revenues earned for services rendered.

The Group’s contracts with customers could include promises to transfer multiple services to a customer. The Group assesses the services promised in a contract and identifies distinct or bundled performance obligations in the contract. Identification of these performance obligations involves judgement to determine the promises and the ability of the customer to benefit independently from such promises. If multiple performance obligations are identified in the contract the transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis, for which the Group recognizes revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. Transaction prices are adjusted for the effects of a significant financing component if we expect, at contract inception, that the period between the transfer of the promised goods or services to the customer and when the customer pays for that service will be more than one year.

The Group exercises judgement in determining whether the performance obligation is satisfied at a point in time or over a period of time. The Group considers indicators such as how a customer consumes benefits as services are rendered, existence of enforceable rights to payment for performance to date, transfer of control to the customer and acceptance of delivery of the service by the customer.

Value-based Care Revenue
Value-based care (“VBC”) revenue consists primarily of per member per month (“PMPM”) allocations for care management services by the Group under arrangements with various customers. Under the typical capitation arrangement, we are entitled to PMPM fees to provide a defined range of VBC services to attributed members. PMPM fees are based upon fixed rates per member or a percentage of the per member premium of the health plan and are not dependent upon the volume of specific care services provided. In addition, the arrangements usually include payments dependent on factors such as the health of our members, our ability to realize savings in healthcare spend for those members and the achievement of certain quality performance metrics. Unlike clinical services revenue discussed below, the Group accepts partial or full financial risk (either global or professional) for members attributed to our VBC services in exchange for a fixed monthly allocation, which means we are responsible for the cost of all covered services provided to members.

In general, the Group considers all VBC revenue contracts as containing a single performance obligation to stand ready to provide managed VBC services to the attributed members. This performance obligation is satisfied over time as the Group stands ready to fulfill its obligation to the attributed members as a group. Accordingly, the Group recognizes revenue in the month in which attributed members are entitled to receive VBC services during the contract term.
Part of the consideration received under VBC revenue contracts is variable as the contracts contain provisions dependent on factors such as the health of our members, our ability to realize savings in healthcare spend for those members and the achievement of certain quality performance metrics. VBC revenue is estimated using the most likely amount methodology and amounts are only included in revenue to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue will not occur once any uncertainty is resolved. Such uncertainties may only be resolved several months after the end of the reporting period because of the availability of sufficient reliable data relating to factors such as quality metrics, member specific attributes and healthcare service costs. Subsequent changes in estimates in VBC revenue and the amount of PMPM revenue to be recognized by the Company are reflected in subsequent periods.

VBC revenue is recognized gross when it is assessed that the performance obligation relates to the whole of the patient journey with the Group responsible for arranging, providing and controlling the VBC services provided to the attributed members, with expenses payable to other healthcare providers.

Software Licensing Revenue
Under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”) the Group must determine whether the Group’s promise to grant a software license provides its customer with either a right to access the Group’s intellectual property (“IP”) or a right to use the Group’s IP. A software license will provide a right to access the IP if there is significant development of the IP expected in the future, whereas for a right to use, the IP is to be used in the condition it is at the time the software license is signed and made available to the customer. Our license fee revenue consists of artificial intelligence (“AI”) services that are provided on a continuous basis for the contractual period. Where we have determined that the customer obtains a right to access our AI services, we recognize revenue on a straight-line basis over the contractual term beginning when the customer has access to the service. Where we identify that the customer obtains a right to use license, we recognize revenue from the license upfront at the point in time at which the license is granted and the software is made available to the customer. Any contract specific revenue relating to localization of services prior to the commencement of software license term is not deemed to be distinct from the software license contract and is consequently also recognized over the software license term. Efforts to satisfy performance obligations are expended evenly throughout the performance period and so the performance obligation is considered to be satisfied evenly over time.

In some cases, we have concluded that upfront payments included in software license contracts with customers have a significant financing component considering the period between the upfront payment and the services provided, when the contract term is more than one year. As a result, the transaction price must be adjusted to account for the time value of money by using an appropriate discount rate. The discount rate utilized is determined based on the rate that would be reflected in a separate financing transaction with the customer. When a significant financing component exists, we recognize a contract liability for the entire upfront cash payment received, excluding the amount relating to the financing component from the transaction price. Additionally, interest expense is recognized over the duration of the contract under the amortized interest method.

Clinical Service Revenue
Clinical service revenue represents clinical services provided to our business and private patients under an arrangement and is recognized when the services are rendered. Our clinical service fees are based on PMPM subscription fees and fees per appointment (“fee-for-service”). PMPM subscription fees give members access to our clinical services over the contractual period as set forth in the arrangement, recognized monthly based on the number of members covered by the plan in a given month. Fee-for-service is based on contracted rates determined in agreed-upon compensation schedules and is recognized when the services are rendered at a point in time.
Claims Expense/Claims Payable
Claims Expense
Claims expense includes the costs of healthcare services rendered by third parties on behalf of patients which the Company is contractually obligated to pay, which includes estimates for medical expenses incurred but not yet reported (“IBNR”) using actuarial processes that are applied on a systematic and consistent basis. This process includes the development of estimates using historical claims experience and actuarial models when sufficient claims history is available from health plans and payors. Claims expense also includes other external costs incurred in the delivery of healthcare services including insurance premiums and recoveries.
Claims PayableClaims payable includes costs for third party healthcare service providers who provide medical care to our members for which the Group is contractually obligated for financial risks relating to the medical services provided. These balances are netted with operating advances paid by the corresponding health plan of a contract as they used to satisfy the obligation to healthcare service providers. The estimated reserve for IBNR claims is included in the liability for unpaid claims in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. Actual claims expense will differ from the estimated liability due to factors in estimated and actual member utilization of health care services, the amount of charges and other factors. We determine our estimates through a variety of actuarial models based on medical claims history to ensure our estimates represent the best, most reasonable estimate given the data available to us at the time the estimates are made.
Clinical Care Delivery Expense Clinical Care Delivery ExpenseClinical care delivery expense includes the internal costs that we incur in the provision of healthcare services to patients, which is substantially composed of employee-related expenses such as salaries and wages for Babylon healthcare professionals. Other costs within Clinical care delivery expense include operating costs incurred for the delivery of healthcare services to patients, such as occupancy, medical supplies, and other support-related costs.
Platform & Application Expenses
Platform & Application Expenses
Platform & application expenses are costs of revenue for our digital healthcare platform. These costs primarily include employee-related salaries, benefits, stock-based compensation, and contractor and consultant expenses that are engaged in providing professional services related to support and maintenance of the digital healthcare platform. These costs also include third-party application costs, hosting services, and other direct costs.
Expenditure on development activities, whereby research findings are applied to a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes, is capitalized if the product establishes technological feasibility. Technological feasibility is established when i) a product design and working model of the product has been completed and ii) testing has been completed over the working model along with ensuring its consistency with the product design. If the criteria is met, capitalized development costs are recorded as intangible assets and amortized from the point at which the development is complete, and the asset is available for use. Expenses that do not meet the criteria for capitalization are expensed as incurred within Platform & application expenses.
Research & Development Expenses Research & Development ExpensesResearch & development expenses primarily included employee-related salaries, benefits, stock-based compensation, and contractor and consultant expenses that are engaged in performing activities to develop and improve the Group’s digital healthcare platform. These costs also include third-party application costs, hosting services, and other indirect costs. Research costs and development costs that do not meet the criteria for capitalization are expensed as incurred within Research & development expenses.
Sales, General & Administrative Expenses Sales, General & Administrative Expenses Sales, general & administrative expenses include employee-related expenses, contractors and consultants expense, stock-based compensation, IT and hosting, marketing, training and recruiting expenses. Enterprise IT and hosting costs are primarily software subscriptions, domain and hosting costs.
Restructuring and Other Termination Benefits Restructuring and Other Termination BenefitsRestructuring and other termination benefits includes expenses for severance, benefits, and contract termination costs for cost reduction efforts to accelerate the Group’s path to profitability. These specific initiatives were predominately completed within the third and fourth quarter of 2022. We accrued costs in connection with these initiatives in the period when the initiatives commence.
Premium Deficiency Reserve Premium Deficiency Reserve Premium deficiency reserve is a liability balance based on estimates for anticipated losses on VBC contracts. These are reassessed by Management when it becomes probable that future losses will be incurred. Management establishes a premium deficiency reserve in current operations to the extent that the direct and indirect cost of fulfilling a VBC arrangement exceeds the future premiums. For purposes of calculating premium deficiency reserves, management groups contracts in a manner consistent with the method of acquiring, servicing, and measuring the profitability of such contracts. Losses or gains from the reassessment of the reserve are recorded in the period in which such losses or gains were identified and are reflected within the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recorded based on the estimated future tax effects of differences between the financial statement and income tax basis of existing assets and liabilities. These differences are measured using the enacted statutory tax rates that are expected to apply to taxable income for the years in which differences are expected to reverse. The Company recognizes the effect on deferred income taxes of a change in tax rates in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred tax assets to the net amount that it believes is more-likely-than-not to be realized. Management considers all available evidence, both positive and negative, including historical levels of income, expectations and risks associated with estimates of future taxable income and ongoing tax planning strategies in assessing the need for a valuation allowance.
Under the provisions of ASC 740-10, Income Taxes, the Company evaluates unrecognized tax benefit by reviewing against applicable tax law for all positions taken by the Company with respect to tax years for which the statute of limitations is still open. ASC 740-10 provides that a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position may be recognized when it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to the liability for unrecognized tax benefits, if any, as a component of the income tax expense line in the accompanying Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
Net Loss Per Share
Net Loss Per Share
Basic and diluted net loss per share is presented in accordance with the two-class method required for participating securities. The Group considers the Earnout and certain Warrant liabilities as participating securities. Net loss is not allocated to deferred shares as the company has not issued any deferred shares nor does that form of stock share in losses of the Group. Net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss attributable to equity holders of the Group by the weighted-average number of shares of ordinary shares of the Group outstanding during the period. In periods where the Group’s operations result in Net income, further adjustments to Net income could occur for the allocation of earnings to participating securities. Diluted net loss per share is computed by giving effect to all potential ordinary shares, to the extent they are dilutive. Basic and diluted net loss per share was the same for each period presented as the inclusion of all potential ordinary shares outstanding would have been anti-dilutive. We have included shares issuable for little or no cash consideration upon the satisfaction of certain conditions (contingently issuable shares), including options and warrants, within the computation of basic net loss per share as of the date that all necessary conditions have been satisfied (in essence, when issuance of the shares is no longer contingent).

In periods where there is a change in common shares outstanding, including share splits and reverse share splits, the Group has adjusted the computations of basic and diluted net loss per share retroactively for all periods presented to reflect that change in capital structure.
Comprehensive Loss Comprehensive Loss Comprehensive loss consists of cumulative translation gains or losses. Unrealized gains or losses are net of any reclassification adjustments for realized gains and losses included in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
Segment Reporting Segment Reporting The Company determined in accordance with ASC 280, Segment Reporting (“ASC 280”), that the Company operates under one operating segment, and therefore one reportable segment for its Healthcare services. The Company’s chief operating decision makers (“CODMs”) regularly review financial operating results on a consolidated basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. Our CODM has been identified as the Chief Executive Officer, Although the Company derives its revenues from several different geographic regions, the Company neither allocates resources based on the operating results from the individual regions nor manages each individual region as a separate business/reporting unit. The Company’s CODM manages the operations on a consolidated basis to make decisions about overall corporate resource allocation and to assess overall corporate profitability based on consolidated revenues and net income. For the periods presented, the majority of the Company’s revenues were located in the United States and long-lived assets existed primarily in the United States until the Higi and IPA reporting units were classified as held for sale as of December 31, 2022. As such, we have identified a single operating segment and reportable segment however, concentrations exist within the single reportable segment for major customers and geographic information.
Business Combinations
Business Combinations
The acquisition consideration is measured at fair value which is the aggregate of the fair values of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred or assumed and the equity interests in exchange for control. The consideration transferred includes the fair value of any asset or liability resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement. Any contingent consideration to be transferred by the Group is recognized at fair value at the acquisition date. Subsequent changes to the fair value of the contingent consideration are recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
The consideration transferred in a business combination shall be measured at fair value, which shall be calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets transferred by the acquirer, the liabilities incurred by the acquirer to former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the acquirer. The allocation process requires an analysis of acquired contracts, customer relationships, contractual commitments, and legal contingencies to identify and record the fair value of all assets acquired and liabilities assumed. In valuing acquired assets and assumed liabilities, fair values are based on, but are not limited to, future expected cash flows, current replacement cost for similar capacity for certain fixed assets, market rate assumptions for contractual obligations, and appropriate discount rates and growth rates.
Where the consideration transferred, together with the non-controlling interest, exceeds the fair value of the net assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities acquired, the excess is recorded as goodwill. Acquisition related costs are expensed as incurred and classified as Sales, general & administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date carrying value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to fair value at the acquisition date. Any gains or losses arising from such remeasurement are recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss. When the Group increases its ownership interests held in one of its consolidated subsidiaries, any difference between the consideration given and the aggregate carrying value of the assets and liabilities of the acquired entity at the date of the transaction is included in equity in retained earnings.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment is stated at historical cost, which includes capitalized borrowing costs, as applicable, less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.
Subsequent expenditure is capitalized only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as a separate asset is derecognized when replaced. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss during the reporting period in which they are incurred.
Depreciation is calculated on a useful lives of the asset and recognized within Depreciation and amortization, as follows:
Computer equipment
3 years
Fixtures and fittings
3-5 years
Deployed machinery
4 years
At the end of each reporting period, the depreciation method, useful life and residual value of each asset is reviewed. Any revisions are accounted for prospectively as a change in estimate.
An asset’s carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if the asset’s carrying amount is greater than its estimated recoverable amount.
When an asset is disposed of, the gain or loss is calculated by comparing proceeds received with its carrying amount and is recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
Other Intangible Assets
Other Intangible Assets
Intangible assets resulting from capitalized development costs in the normal course of business are recorded at historical cost. Intangible assets acquired in a business combination are recognized at fair value at the acquisition date. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses.
The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as either finite or indefinite.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are at least reviewed at the end of each reporting period. The amortization expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognized in Depreciation & amortization expenses.
The useful lives of the Group’s intangible assets are:
Development costs
1-10 years
Developed technology
5 years
Customer relationships
15 years
Trade names
5-11 years
Physician network
3-10 years
1-2 years
An intangible asset is derecognized upon disposal (i.e., at the date the recipient obtains control) or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising upon derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
Goodwill is measured as described in “Business combinations” above. Goodwill is not amortized and is reviewed for impairment at least annually as of October 1 or more frequently if triggering events occur or impairment indicators exist. Gains and losses on the disposal of an entity include the carrying amount of goodwill relating to the entity sold.

For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination is allocated to each of the reporting units or groups of reporting units, that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. Each unit or group of units represents the lowest level within the entity at which the goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes.
When testing goodwill for impairment, we first performing a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is likely or not that the fair value of our total company reporting unit is less than its respective carrying amount. If we elect to bypass the qualitative assessment, or if a qualitative assessment indicates it is more likely than not that carrying value exceeds its fair value, we perform a quantitative goodwill impairment test. Under the quantitative goodwill impairment test, if our reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value, we will record an impairment charge based on the difference.
Trade Receivables Trade ReceivablesWe use a forward-looking current expected credit loss (“CECL”) model in determining our allowance for doubtful accounts as it relates to trade receivables, contract assets, and other financial assets. Our allowance is based on historical experience, and includes consideration of the aging of the receivables, the economic environment, industry trend analysis, and the credit history and financial conditions of the customers among other factors. We measure an impairment loss as the excess of the carrying amount over the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted using the financial asset’s original discount rate, and we recognize this loss in our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss. A financial asset is written-off or written-down to its net realizable value as soon as it is known to be impaired. We adjust previous write-downs to reflect changes in estimates or actual experience. Our allowance for doubtful accounts is not material.
Assets Held for Sale
Assets Held for Sale
Assets and liabilities of disposal group(s) are classified as held for sale when:
•    management, having the authority to approve action, commits to a plan to sell,
•    the disposal group(s) are available for immediate sale in present condition,
•    an active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell have been initiated,
•    the sale is probable and expected to be completed within one year,
•    the sale is actively marketed at a reasonable price reflecting its current fair value,
•    and it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn.

The Group initially measures a disposal group that is classified as held for sale at the lower of its carrying value or fair value less cost to sell. Any impairment loss resulting from this initial measurement is recognized in the period in which the held for sale criteria described above, is met. Conversely, gains are not recognized on the sale of a disposal group until the date of sale. The Group assesses the fair value of a disposal group, less costs to sell, at each reporting period that it remains as held for sale, with any changes as a result of the assessment adjusting the carrying value of the disposal group, but not in excess of the cumulative loss previously recognized on the disposal group.
Following their classification as held for sale, assets are not depreciated or amortized. Interest and other expenses attributable to the liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale continue to be recognized.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase. As of December 31, 2022, the Group had restricted cash of $0.3 million (2021: $0.3 million). The Company’s cash and cash equivalents generally consist of restricted cash and short-term investment funds. Cash and cash equivalents are stated at fair value.
Impairment of Non-financial Assets Excluding Deferred Tax Assets Impairment of Non-financial Assets Excluding Deferred Tax Assets Assets that are subject to depreciation or amortization are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that carrying values may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value. An asset’s fair value is determined by using critical accounting estimates of discounted future net cash flows of the asset or group of assets to which it belongs. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are largely independent cash flows from other assets and liabilities (an asset group).
Employee Benefits
Employee Benefits
Defined Contribution Plans
Obligations for contributions to defined contribution pension plans are recognized as an expense in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss the periods during which services are rendered by employees.

Short-term Benefits
Short-term employee benefits are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognized for the amount expected to be paid if the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.
Stock-based Payment Transactions
Stock-based Payment Transactions
The Group and the Company operates an equity compensation scheme. It issues equity settled stock-based payments to both employees and non-employees within the Group, whereby services are rendered in exchange for rights to purchase shares of the Company, which are primarily composed of restricted stock awards and options. Non-employees include contractors and advisors.
The grant date fair value of stock-based payment awards granted to employees is recognized as an employee expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period that the employees become unconditionally entitled to the awards, net of estimated forfeitures. The fair value of the options granted is measured using an option valuation model, taking into account the terms and conditions upon which the options were granted. The amount recognized as an expense is adjusted to reflect the actual number of awards for which the related service and non-market vesting conditions (if applicable) are expected to be met, such that the amount ultimately recognized as an expense is based on the number of awards that do meet the related service and non-market performance conditions at the vesting date. Compensation expense associated with equity compensation awards is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite period. The forfeitures rate is estimated and revised at each reporting date based on current period information and actual forfeitures. For stock-based payment awards with non-vesting conditions, the grant date fair value of the stock-based payment is measured to reflect such conditions, and there is no true-up for differences between expected and actual outcomes.
Valuation of Ordinary Shares/Equity Issuance Costs Valuation of Ordinary SharesAs there has been no public market for the Group’s ordinary shares prior to October 21, 2021, the estimated fair value of the ordinary shares had been determined by the Board of Directors as of the date of each grant, with input from management, considering the most recently available third-party valuations of the Group’s ordinary shares, and the assessment of additional objective and subjective factors that they believed were relevant and which may have changed from the date of the most recent valuation through the date of the grant.Equity Issuance CostsThe Group recognizes incremental external costs directly attributable to an equity issuance transaction as a deduction from equity. Any transaction costs are therefore deducted from share premium where possible to do so.
Foreign Currency
Foreign Currency
Transactions in foreign currencies are translated to the respective functional currencies of Group entities at the average foreign exchange rates for income and expenses. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are translated to the functional currency at the foreign exchange rate ruling as of the reporting period end date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are stated at fair value are translated to the functional currency at foreign exchange rates ruling at the dates the fair value was determined. Foreign exchange differences arising on translation are recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
The assets and liabilities of foreign operations, including goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on consolidation, are translated to the Group’s reporting currency, United States Dollars, at foreign exchange rates ruling at the reporting date. The revenues and expenses of foreign operations are translated at an average rate for the year where this rate approximates to the foreign exchange rates ruling at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange differences arising on translation are recognized as other comprehensive loss.
Contingencies ContingenciesA contingent liability is recognized in the Consolidated Balance Sheets when both it is probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount of the loss is reasonably estimable.
Debt Issuance Costs/Loans and Borrowings/Convertible Loan Notes
Debt Issuance Costs
The Group recognizes incremental external costs directly attributable to a debt issuance transaction as a reduction of the carrying value of the related debt liability. The costs are amortized over the life of the debt using the effective interest rate method. The amortized costs are reported as Interest expense on the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
Loans and Borrowings
Interest-bearing loans and borrowings are recognized initially at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Borrowings are subsequently carried at amortized cost; any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption value is recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method.

Convertible Loan Notes
The Company evaluates all conversion, repurchase and redemption features contained in a debt instrument to determine if there are any embedded features that require bifurcation as a derivative. In accounting for the issuance of the Convertible Loan Note issued in November 2020, the Company recorded a long-term debt liability equal to the proceeds received from issuance, including the embedded conversion feature, net of the debt issuance and offering costs on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. The conversion feature is not required to be accounted for separately as an embedded derivative. The Company amortizes debt issuance and offering costs over the term of the Convertible Loan Note as interest expense utilizing the effective interest method on the Company’s Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss.
Our lease contracts primarily include real estate leases for buildings and are accounted for under ASC 842, Leases (“ASC 842”).
We assess whether a contract is or contains a lease, at inception of a contract. We recognize a right-of-use asset and a corresponding lease liability with respect to all lease agreements in which we are the lessee, except for short-term leases (defined as leases with a lease term of 12 months or less). The Group has determined capitalization threshold of $0.3 million for individual lease payments or $1.0 million in the aggregate for an individual period to be expensed as incurred.

For operating leases, we subsequently measure the right-of-use asset at the present value of the remaining lease payments, discounted using the interest rate used at lease conception and adjusted for the following:
Prepaid or accrued lease payments
The remaining balance of any lease incentives to be received
Unamortized initial direct costs
Any ROU asset impairments
For finance leases, we amortize the right-of-use asset on a straight-line basis unless another systematic basis is more representative of the pattern in which the lessee expects to consume the right-of-use asset’s future economic benefits.
Derivatives are initially measured at fair value and are subsequently remeasured to fair value at each reporting date. Warrants are derivatives that give the holder the right, but not the obligation to subscribe to the Company’s Ordinary Shares at a fixed or determinable price for a specified period. Changes in fair value are recognized in Gain / (loss) on Warrant liabilities or Earnout liabilities in the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss, as appropriate.

For warrants that are tradeable, fair value is determined using market price on the NYSE under the ticker BBLN.W. For non-tradeable warrants and earnout shares, fair value is determined based on the terms of the warrants or other applicable agreements. For non-tradeable warrants with identical terms to the tradeable warrants, fair value is determined using market price of the tradeable warrants. For non-tradeable warrants or earnout shares with terms that are not identical to the tradeable warrants or other similar instruments, fair value is determined using a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the exercise price, the term of the warrant, the underlying share price (BBLN) at the measurement date, the risk-free rate, and a volatility rate derived from peer group companies.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair Value Measurements
The accounting standard regarding fair value of financial instruments and related fair value measurements defines financial instruments and requires disclosure of the fair value of financial instruments held by the Group. The accounting standards define fair value, establish a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosures of fair value measurement and enhance disclosure requirements for fair value measures. The three levels are defined as follow:
•    Level 1 inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
•    Level 2 inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
•    Level 3 inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement.
Financial assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the financial statements at fair value on a recurring basis, the Group determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the fair value hierarchy by re-assessing categorization at the end of each reporting period.
The carrying amounts reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheets for receivables and current liabilities each qualify as financial instruments and are a reasonable estimate of their fair values because of the short period of time between the origination of such instruments and their expected realization and their current market rate of interest. The Group does not have any other material assets or liabilities that are recognized at fair value on a recurring basis.
New Standards and Interpretations Not Yet Adopted/Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
New Standards and Interpretations Not Yet Adopted
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers. The new guidance requires contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination to be recognized and measured by the acquirer on the acquisition date in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, as if it had originated the contracts. Under the current business combinations guidance, such assets and liabilities are recognized by the acquirer at fair value on the acquisition date. The new standard is effective for our fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2022. Early adoption is permitted. The standard will not impact acquired contract assets or liabilities from business combinations occurring prior to the effective date of adoption, and the impact in future periods will depend on the contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in future business combinations. We are currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2021-08 on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2020-06 Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity. Among other changes, ASU 2020-06 removes the liability and equity separation model for convertible instruments with a cash conversion feature, and as a result, after adoption, entities will no longer separately present in equity an embedded conversion feature for such debt. Similarly, the embedded conversion feature will no longer be amortized into income as interest expense over the life of the instrument. Instead, entities will account for a convertible debt instrument wholly as debt unless (1) a convertible instrument contains features that require bifurcation as a derivative under ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, or (2) a convertible debt instrument was issued at a substantial premium. Additionally, ASU 2020-06 requires the application of the if-converted method to calculate the impact of convertible instruments on diluted earnings per share and updates the disclosure requirements in ASC 470-20, making them easier to understand for financial statement preparers and improving the decision-usefulness and relevance of the information for financial statement users. The Company adopted the new guidance for the year ended December 31, 2022, noting no material impact.

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes Topic 740—Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application of ASC 740. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods therein. The Company adopted the new guidance for the year ended December 31, 2021, noting no material impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures.

In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-01, Investments—Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments—Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815)—Clarifying the Interactions between Topic 321, Topic 323, and Topic 815 (“ASU 2020-01”). ASU 2020-01 clarifies the interaction of the accounting for equity securities under Topic 321 and investments accounted for under the equity method of accounting in Topic 323 and the accounting for certain forward contracts and purchased options accounted for under Topic 815.The Company adopted the new guidance for the year ended December 31, 2021, noting no material impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures.

In October 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-17, Consolidation – Targeted Improvements to Related Party Guidance for Variable Interest Entities (Topic 810) (“ASU 2018-17”). ASU 2018-17 eliminates the requirement that entities consider indirect interests held through related parties under common control in their entirety when assessing whether a decision-making fee is a variable interest. Instead, the reporting entity will consider such indirect interests on a proportionate basis. ASU 2018-17 is effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. All entities are required to apply the adjustments in ASU 2018-17 retrospectively with a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings at the beginning of the earliest period presented. The Company adopted the new guidance for the year ended December 31, 2021, noting no material impact.